Learn how to find a stud in a wall or ceiling, with or without a stud finder! Get my tips for finding a stud to securely hang your TV or art.
Trying to find studs in the wall can be frustrating. No one wants to repeatedly drill holes in the wall and only hit air! Luckily, there are a few techniques that should keep your walls in good shape and your project running smoothly!
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Hitting a stud is important when you're hanging something heavy on the walls, such as a flat screen TV or floating shelves. Studs are anchored into the frame of the house, so anything you properly attach to them is going to be secure.
It's also necessary to find the studs in a wall when you plan to install recessed shelves. This little nook in our bathroom is attached to the sides of the studs to hold it in place.
Let's learn how to find a stud in the wall!
Types of Stud Finders
The easiest way to find a stud in most cases is with a stud finder. There are a few different types that can be broken down into two main categories: Electronic stud finders, and magnetic stud detectors.
Electronic Stud Finders
Electronic stud finders work by sensing tiny changes to the electric field inside the wall. These scans allow the device to read the density of the wall.
If the density reading is high, then there's a stud. If it's low, then there is nothing but space. Some models have advanced settings that allow you to scan for other things in the wall, like pipes and wires.
Magnetic Stud Finders
Magnetic stud detectors have a more indirect way of locating studs. Instead of sensing the stud itself, it uses a magnet to find the nails or screws which hold the drywall to the studs. It will hang on the wall in the exact location of a drywall screw, leaving your hands free to mark it with a pencil.
Be careful with this kind of detector, especially if you are drilling or cutting into the wall. If a pipe or some other metal object is inside the wall, this kind of sensor can sometimes read it as a stud.
This method also assumes that the builder screwed the drywall down the exact center of the studs. We all know that's not always the case!
Smartphone Stud Finders
There is a third type of stud finder that you most likely already own! Most smartphones have magnetometers built-in, which allow them to function as magnetic stud finders.
You can find plenty of free stud finder apps for both Apple and Android. However, since they operate in the same way as any magnetic stud detector, they also have the same issues and are far less accurate than electronic stud finders.
So Which Kind Of Stud Finder Should I Buy?
A magnetic detector is cheaper (or even free if you use a smartphone app) and will have a lower chance of breaking since there are no electronic parts or batteries to replace. But for the average homeowner, a base level electronic stud finder is the way to go. You can get one for about 25 bucks, and they are much more accurate than the magnetic kind. This is the one I have.
One important thing to check for, if you decide to buy an electronic finder, is its depth capacity. The one I use has a switch to toggle between the typical drywall depth and a deep scan of up to 1 1/2" to find a stud through a fire wall or two layers of drywall.
How to Use a Stud Finder
The operation of a stud finder is very simple, but you would be surprised how many people use it incorrectly! I've had to educate more than one friend (names have been omitted to protect the innocent 🙂 ) about how to use a stud finder the right way.
Hold the Stud Finder to the Wall when Turned Off
You might think that you need to press the button before you begin, but the unit calibrates to the wall when you turn it on. Simply hold the unit to the wall in the area you are searching and turn it on with the button located on the side of the device.
If you happen to start your scan on a stud, it will show an error message. Just turn it off, move it over a few inches, and try again.
Move the Stud Finder in One Direction Until it Beeps
Once the screen turns on and is calibrated, slowly slide the stud finder in one direction, keeping the button pressed. When a stud is detected, it will beep and display an image on the screen.
The diagram on the screen will show a sequence of ascending bars. The more bars that appear, the closer to the stud you are. Once you hit the edge of the stud, the triangle will fill in completely. On this model, it even has a big glowing arrow that just screams "Your stud is right here!"
Keep in mind that the stud finder is showing you the edges of the stud, not the center. It is very important that you find the center of the stud.
Mark the Edges of the Stud to Find the Center
Mark the edge point with a pencil on the wall, then move the stud finder to the other side of the stud. Repeat the process going the opposite direction.
When the stud finder beeps again, you've found the other edge of the stud. The center is between those two points. Typically a stud is 1 1/2" wide, so the center will be at 3/4".
If you don't want to write on your walls, you can stick a strip of painter's tape to the wall and mark on the tape like I did below.
Finding Additional Studs
Once you have found the center of two studs, you have found them all! According to building code, studs must be either 16 or 24 inches apart, based on the type of building you are working in.
After you have found two studs, mark their centers and then measure between them. Now you know the distance between every stud in the building. For the rest of your project, you can simply find a stud then measure in either direction to find the other studs in the wall.
Note: Be warned that, sometimes, builders put studs in strange places or use odd spacing on a short wall. Although this method gives a good idea of where the stud should be, you should always verify with the stud finder or the methods below.
Places Where A Stud Finder Might Not Work
If the ceiling you are working on is heavily textured or covered with popcorn, an electronic stud finder will not work. You may have marginal success with a magnetic unit, but it may not give you an accurate reading.
However, if the ceiling is smooth just like the wall, then your stud finder will work fine and the process is exactly the same.
Plaster or Stucco
When a wall is finished with plaster or stucco, the backing that holds up your facade is made of wooden slats. These slats are spaced apart so that when you apply your finish, it pushes through the gaps and provides a better hold.
However, this means that the thickness of the wall is different at almost every point. Also, there is a density difference between the plaster/stucco and the wood, which means that if the plaster did not push through the slats, the electronic unit would give an inaccurate reading.
There is a possibility that you could use a magnetic stud finder, but even this is uncertain. There's sometimes a layer of metal mesh between the facade and the wood. So, if this is the case, your magnetic detector will read the entire wall as one big stud!
How To Find A Stud Without A Stud Finder
Sometimes, it's easier to go the old-fashioned route. While the handy stud finder can be very convenient, it's not perfect. When safety is a concern, you should always double check with the drill bit method below.
Finding a Stud With a Drill Bit or Nail
If you need to be absolutely sure there's a stud in the wall, use a small drill bit or nail to test it first. Make sure it's longer than the thickness of the drywall.
If you're hesitant to put an unnecessary hole in the wall at eye level, test down by the baseboards instead. Even if you didn't patch it up, the tiny imperfection wouldn't be noticeable from a distance.
Simply drill or nail into the wall at the location you found with a stud finder. If it goes in and gets stuck, you've hit the stud. If it suddenly slides into the wall and is easy to pull out, you've gone through the drywall and hit air!
Finding a stud by Knocking
This is, perhaps, the most age-old method for finding studs. Put your ear close to the wall and start lightly knocking. As you do, move steadily to the side and continue to knock. If you are not over a stud, your knocking will echo a hollow sound. Once you reach a stud, the sound of your knock with become a dull thud.
Once the sound begins to deaden, keep going a little bit until it starts to echo again, then go back in the opposite direction. Moving back and forth like this will allow you to pinpoint the place where your knock had the dullest sound and give you a more accurate idea of where the stud is.
Finding a Stud with a Flashlight
It might sound a little bizarre at first, but this method can be quite effective. Simply turn down the lights in the room you are working in, then hold a flashlight at a sharp angle to the wall.
Slowly move the flashlight up and down, keeping the beam parallel to the wall's surface, and you will start to see small bumps or indentations. These dots are usually imperfections in the wall's finish where the nails or screws are holding the drywall in place. Check with a magnet to be sure!
Note: This technique might not work super well if the wall you are working on is very new, or has been recently refinished since imperfections will be less evident.
Finding a Stud with a Magnet
This process is essentially the same as using a magnetic stud detector, but instead of using a fancy device, you are just using the magnet itself. You will need a relatively strong magnet, such as rare earth magnets, for this method.
Slide the magnet back and forth methodically along the wall, so you don't miss any spots. You are looking for the fasteners that are holding the drywall in place. As you slide along, feel for the magnet sticking to the wall.
In the photo above, you can see that the magnetic stud finder discovered that two sheets of drywall meet at this stud, so the screws are off to the sides instead of down the middle. Attaching something to the wall on the side of the stud may result in a less secure hold.
Finding a Stud from a Doorway or Outlet
As I mentioned before, by code, studs are always spaced at either 16 or 24 inches on center. Using this information, you can find the general location of where studs in a wall will be with nothing but a measuring tape.
To do this, start at either a corner of the room, an outlet, or a door. These are all places where a stud is guaranteed to be. Measure from any of these objects to both 16 and 24 inches, mark your place, then use the knocking test to see if there is a stud there.
Note: Outlet boxes will be screwed to the side of a stud. The box could be on either side, so check to see which one you should measure from. The stud finder also correctly alerted me to the presence of electrical wires in the area. (Ignore the mismatched outlet and plate. It's on my to-do list!)
Each of these techniques will give you a solid idea of where a stud is, but the only way to be 100% sure is to poke a hole and check. This is especially important when the item you're hanging could result in injury if it were to fall on someone. Safety first!
With all these tools in your belt, you should be able to find any stud without a problem. Happy hunting!
- Electronic Stud Finder
- Magnetic Stud Finder
- Hold the stud finder to the wall with the unit turned off.
- Press the button on the side of the unit to turn on and calibrate.
- Slowly move the unit back and forth along the desired area until the unit beeps and displays a full bar to indicate the edge of a stud.
- Mark the position of the edge of the stud.
- Repeat the process, moving in the opposite direction, to find the other edge of the stud.
- Mark the center of the stud.
- Hang your item from the center point of the stud.